Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) is a non-specific staining technique that utilizes two dyes to produce different colors on cell components, highlighting cell morphology features as well as nuclei in tissues.
H&E is the gold standard as a first line test in diagnostic environments since it is able to provide general information about the tissue easily and in under 5 minutes. It is therefore often used intraoperatively during biopsy procedures to support the surgeon’s decision-making. However, this technique is often insufficient to distinguish between cells that show similar morphological features, where further staining techniques is needed in order to provide specific molecular information. In these cases, IHC, as well as IF in the research setting, are common methods.